The research which is conducted based on the measurement of quantity is known as quantitative research. This type of research depends on quantitative data which is in numerical form, and which can be analysed or presented using tables or charts or figures, histogram, graphs or statistics. Quantitative methods are best used for questions that relate to “quantities”. In other words, they are about counting or measuring events or phenomena. Social science can thereby achieve a clear, well founded analysis and interpretation of social phenomena, based on testable and verifiable data.

A research which is concerned with subject phenomena is known as qualitative research. The main aim of qualitative research is to get depth knowledge and explain the issue or subject rather than finding the solution or coming to the conclusions. Exploratory research and case study are examples of qualitative research. Survey, interview are tools of qualitative research. Generally, it is conducted to understand the response of the people. Qualitative research is substantially used in the study of social science research. Qualitative research collects data from individual, organization, books and other written documents, environment, medias and events. Qualitative research is used in market segmentation, development of concept of advertisement, new product development etc. following tools may be used in qualitative research:

  • Context analysis
  • Comparative analysis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Conversation analysis
  • Grounded theory

Whereas quantitative research considers to the measurable facts and finds out the result analyzing those facts using statistical or mathematical tools. It uses mean, median, mode, standard deviation, correlation, regression, z-test, f-test, t-test, etc. to analyse the data and finds out the solutions to draws conclusions. This research is conducted to know how and why things happens in the society or organizations. Quantitative data may be obtained from secondary source or from the participants’ responses that are coded, categorized and converted into numbers so that these data can be used for further analysis.

Difference between qualitative and quantitative research are given as below:

Bases of differences Qualitative Research Quantitative research
Focus of research Understand and analyze the issue. Explain and predict the issue.
Sample size Sample size is small. Sample size is large.
Data collection Data is collected through unstructured questionnaires. Data is collected through structured questionnaire.
Data analysis Collected data are analysed based on established theories. Collected data are analysed using various statistical tools.
Involvement of researcher Researcher himself involves in the research work. Involvement of researcher remains less.
Purpose of research In depth understanding and develop theory. Explain and predict over any subject and develop theory and its testing.


collected from : research methodology by P.R. Joshi (2010)